The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg has been a sovereign and independent state since the Treaty of London of 19 April 1839. Luxembourg is a parliamentary democracy in the form of a constitutional monarchy. The crown of the Grand Duchy is hereditary in the family of Nassau-Weilbourg. Luxembourg also has a special feature: it is the only Grand Duchy in the world.
In 1919, the revision of the Constitution and the introduction of universal suffrage marked a turning point in the political life of the Grand Duchy. Before this date, the right to vote was subject to the tax, that is to say a certain amount of tax paid, and restricted to the male population aged at least 25 years. From the 1919 revision, every citizen who had reached the age of 21 was granted the right to vote. In 1972, the voting age was lowered to 18.
Luxembourg is a democratic state. Under the Constitution, the Nation is the source of sovereign power and it is before the representatives of the sovereign Nation that the Grand Duke , on his accession to the throne, takes the constitutional oath.